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An event is something that happens during the course of a business process. These events affect the flow of the process and often have a cause (trigger) or an impact (result). They can start, interrupt, or end the flow. Events are used for e.g. exception handling to interrupt the activity or to trigger an activity to start (timer event). Start Events can only react to (“catch”) a Trigger. End Events can only create (“throw”) a Result. Intermediate Events can catch or throw Triggers. For the Events, Triggers that catch the markers are unfilled, and for Triggers and Results that throw the markers are filled.

 

Events are represented as circles with open centers to allow internal markers to differentiate different triggers or results.

pic_event

The default template in QPR ProcessGuide does not have a corresponding element to event.

 

Events can be of type start, intermediate or end in a business process flow. Events have different triggers/results depending on the event type.

 

Event types are illustrated below.

 

pic_eventtypes

 

Creating and Modifying Events

Tool Palette of the BPMN template contains tools for creating events with the event type and the trigger or result specified. When you have selected the right tool in the Tool Palette, create a new event by pointing and clicking the location for it in the flow chart.

 

You can edit the properties of events (such as the attributes listed in the tables below) by right-clicking on the element in the flow chart view and selecting Set Process Step Properties... For further information on this dialog, see topic "Process Step Dialog" in QPR ProcessGuide - User's Guide. Using the pop-up context menu, you can also change directly some of the event properties, such as the event type.

 

 

Common Event Attributes

All events share some common attributes. These common attributes are described in the following table.

 

Attribute / Attribute group

Cardinality

Type

Description

Common Event Attributes




EventType

1

String

The type of event. The possible options are:

Start
Intermediate
End

 

Start Event

The start event indicates where a particular process will start. Start events can have none, message, timer, conditional, signal, and multiple type triggers. All start events are catching the trigger and this is indicated with an unfilled marker inside the Event symbol.

 

The attributes for the start event are described in the following table.

 

Attribute / Attribute group

Cardinality

Type

Description

Start Trigger

1

String

The type of start trigger. The possible options are:

None: The type of event is not displayed.
Message: A message arrives from a participant and triggers the start of the process.
Timer: A specific time-date or a specific cycle can be set that will trigger the start of the process.
Conditional: The event is triggered when the conditions for a defined rule become true.
Signal: A signal arrives that has been broadcast from another Process and triggers the start of the Process.
Multiple: This means that there are multiple ways of triggering the process. Only one of them will be required to start the process.

Message Trigger Attributes




MessageRef

1

MessageRef

Message is an object that has properties name, properties (0-n), from, to. It describes the relations of the message. In QPR ProcessGuide, separate elements are used as messages. MessageRef type is a relation attribute to Message elements. A dialog is opened for selecting the message element.

Implementation

1

String

This attribute specifies the technology that will be used to receive the message. The possible options are:

Web service (the default)
Other
Unspecified

Timer Trigger Attributes




TimeDate

1

Expression

If the Trigger is a Timer, then a TimeDate may be entered. If a TimeDate is not entered, then a TimeCycle must be entered (see the attribute below).

TimeCycle

1

Expression

If the Trigger is a Timer, then a TimeCycle may be entered. If a TimeCycle is not entered, then a TimeDate must be entered (see the attribute above).

Conditional Trigger Attributes




Condition

1

Condition

Condition contains the name and the expression for condition.

Name: String name is an attribute that is the textual description of the rule.
ConditionExpression: Defines the rule expression as a string. In some cases the rule itself will be stored and maintained in a separate application (e.g., a Rules Engine).

Signal Trigger Attributes




Name


String

The Name of the Signal.

Properties


Property

Multiple Properties MAY be entered for the Signal.

Multiple Trigger Attributes




Triggers

N

Trigger

Trigger is an attribute that defines the type of trigger expected for

that start event. The possible options are:

None (the default)
Message
Timer
Error
Cancel
Compensation
Conditional
Link
Signal
Multiple
Terminate

You can add multiple triggers and combine different trigger types.

 

 

Intermediate Event

Intermediate events occur between a start event and an end event. It will affect the flow of the process, but will not start or (directly) terminate the process. Intermediate events can have none, message, timer, error, compensation, cancel, conditional, link, signal, and multiple type triggers. Some intermediate events can catch or throw the trigger and this is indicated with unfilled or filled marker inside the Event symbol.

 

The attributes for the intermediate event are described in the following table.

 

Attribute / Attribute group

Cardinality

Type

Description

Trigger

1

String

The type of trigger. The possible options are:

None: the type of Event is not displayed.
Message: Catch - A message arrives from a participant and triggers the event. Throw - In Normal Flow, Message intermediate Events can be used for sending messages to a participant. When used to “throw” the message, the Event marker will be filled.
Timer: A specific time-date or a specific cycle can be set that will trigger the event.
Error: This type of Event can only be attached to the boundary of an activity, thus it reacts to (catches) a named error, or to any error if a name is not specified.
Compensation: This is used for compensation handling, both setting and performing compensation. Catch - When used to “catch” the Compensation event, the Event marker MUST be unfilled. Throw - When used in Normal flow, this Intermediate Event indicates that a Compensation is necessary. Thus, it is used to “throw” the Compensation event, and the Event marker is be filled.
Cancel: This type of intermediate event is used within a transaction sub-process.
Conditional: This type of event is triggered when a Condition becomes true.
Link: A Link is a mechanism for connecting two sections of a Process. Link Events can be used to create looping situations or to avoid long Sequence Flow lines. Link Event uses are limited to a single Process level (i.e., they cannot link a parent Process with a Sub-Process). Catch - When used to “catch” from the Source Link, the Event marker will be unfilled. Throw - When used to “throw” to the Target Link, the Event marker will be filled.
Multiple: This means that there are multiple ways of triggering the event. Only one of them will be required.

Message Trigger Attributes




MessageRef

1

MessageRef

Message is an object that has properties name, properties (0-n), from, to. It describes the relations of the message. In QPR ProcessGuide separate elements are used as messages. MessageRef type is a relation attribute to Message element. A dialog is opened for selecting the message element.

Message catch/throw

1

String

This attribute specifies if the message is caught or thrown.

Implementation

1

String

This attribute specifies the technology that will be used to receive the message. The possible options are:

Web service (the default)
Other
Unspecified

Timer Trigger Attributes




TimeDate

1

Expression

If the Trigger is a Timer, then a TimeDate may be entered. If a TimeDate is not entered, then a TimeCycle must be entered (see the attribute below).

TimeCycle

1

Expression

If the Trigger is a Timer, then a TimeCycle may be entered. If a TimeCycle is not entered, then a TimeDate must be entered (see the attribute above).

Error Trigger Attributes




ErrorCode

1

String

If the Event is within a Normal Flow, you must enter the error code. The ErrorCode "throws" the error. If the event is attached to the boundary of an activity, you may enter the error code. This event “catches” the error. If there is no error code, any error triggers the event. If there is an error code, only an error that matches the error code triggers the event.

Compensation Trigger Attributes




Activity

1

Object

Defines the activity for the compensation. A dialog is opened for selecting the model element.

Compensation catch/throw

1

String

This attribute specifies if compensation is caught or thrown.

Conditional Trigger Attributes




Condition

1

Condition

Condition contains the name and the expression for condition.

Name: String name is an attribute that is the textual description of the rule.
ConditionExpression: Defines the rule expression as a string. In some cases the rule itself will be stored and maintained in a separate application (e.g., a Rules Engine).

Link Trigger Attributes




Name

1

String

The Name of the link.

Link catch/throw

1

String

Defines whether the link is used to catch or throw the link.

Signal Trigger Attributes




Name

1

String

The Name of the Signal.

Properties

N

Property

Multiple Properties MAY be entered for the Signal

Signal catch/throw

1

String

This attribute specifies if signal is caught or thrown.

Multiple Trigger Attributes




Triggers

N

Trigger

Trigger is an attribute that defines the type of trigger expected for

that intermediate event. The possible options are:

None (the default)
Message
Timer
Error
Cancel
Compensation
Conditional
Link
Signal
Multiple
Terminate

You can add multiple triggers and combine different trigger types.

Multiple catch/throw

1

String

This attribute specifies if multiple events are caught or thrown.

 

End Event

The end event indicates where a process will end. End events can have none, message, error, cancel, compensation, signal, terminate, and multiple type results. All end events are throwing the result and this is indicated with filled marker inside the Event symbol.

 

The attributes for the end event are described in the following table.

 

Attribute / Attribute group

Cardinality

Type

Description

Result

1

String

The type of Result. The possible options are:

None: The type of event is not displayed.
Message: This type of end indicates that a message is sent to a participant at the conclusion of the process.
Error: This type of end indicates that a named error should be generated.
Cancel: This type of end is used within a transaction sub-process. It will indicate that the transaction should be canceled and will trigger a cancel intermediate event attached to the sub-process boundary.
Compensation: This type of end will indicate that a compensation is necessary. The compensation identifier will trigger an intermediate event when the process is rolling back.
Signal: This type of End indicates that a Signal will be broadcast when the End has been reached.
Terminate: This type of end indicates that all activities in the process should be immediately ended.
Multiple: This means that there are multiple consequences of ending the process. All of them will occur.

Message Result Attributes




MessageRef

1

MessageRef

Message is an object that has properties name, properties (0-n), from, to. It describes the relations of the message. In QPR ProcessGuide separate elements are used as messages. MessageRef type is a relation attribute to Message element. A dialog is opened for selecting the message element.

Implementation

1

String

This attribute specifies the technology that will be used to receive the message. The possible options are:

Web service (the default)
Other
Unspecified

Error Result Attributes




ErrorCode

1

String

If the event is within a normal flow, you must enter the error code. The ErrorCode "throws" the error. If the event is attached to the boundary of an activity, you may enter the error code. This event “catches” the error. If there is no error code, any error triggers the event. If there is an error code, only an error that matches the error code triggers the event.

Compensation Result Attributes




Activity

1

Object

Defines the activity for the compensation. A dialog is opened for selecting the model element.

Signal Result Attributes




Name

1

String

The Name of the Signal.

Properties

N

Property

Multiple Properties MAY be entered for the Signal.

Multiple Result Attributes




Results

N

Result

Result is an attribute that defines the type of trigger expected for

that end event. The possible options are:

None (the default)
Message
Timer
Error
Cancel
Compensation
Conditional
Link
Multiple
Terminate

You can add multiple triggers and combine different trigger types.

 

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